Social Equity Initiative

Portugal, Social Balance

The yearly report Portugal, Balanço Social [Portugal, Social Balance] aims to draw a socioeconomic portrait of Portuguese families and provide a basis for cross-sectional discussion on poverty and social exclusion in the country. The document describes poverty regarding income and addresses differences in employment status, access to education and health, housing conditions, and social and political participation. It also mentions the persistence of poverty, regional differences, inequality in income distribution, the impact of public policies in the mitigation of poverty, and the population's perceptions and attitudes towards the welfare state.

Portugal, Social Balance 2021 Report

The 2nd edition of the Portugal, Balanço Social [Portugal, Social Balance]  updates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, in 2020 and 2021 on the most vulnerable groups of the population, on health, education and the labor market. This year it also adds a section dedicated to the elderly.

See Report  See Executive Summary  See Presentation  See Launch Event

Suggested citation: Peralta, S., Carvalho, B. P., & Esteves, M. (2022). Portugal, Balanço Social 2021. Nova School of Business and Economics.



Here you can find some of the key findings of the “Portugal, Balanço Social 2021” report in infographics (in portuguese):

A portrait of the country: poverty and inequality

The economic and social effects of the pandemic

The report "Essential Expenditures and Household Income: The Asymmetric Effects of Inflation" analyzes the structure of household budgets according to their income level. The authors use microdata from the 2015/16 Household Budget Survey, which is the latest of this type carried out by INE. The study characterizes the consumption patterns along the income distribution and shows that spending in essential consumption goods, such as food, and electricity and gas, represents a higher weight in the budget of the poorest families, who will thus support a higher cost from the current wave of inflation.

See report.

The pandemic and the job market: What we know a year later

This report combines data from the Employment Survey (IE) carried out by INE, the Studies and Planning Office of the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (GEP - MTSSS), the Institute for Employment and Vocational Training (IEFP) and Google to analyze the effects of the pandemic on the job market a year later. This is the first complementary note of the report “Portugal, Balanço Social”.


The Team

Susana Peralta
Scientific Coordinator
Bruno P. Carvalho
Scientific Coordinator
Mariana Esteves